New High-Speed 3D Surface Imaging Technology in Electronics Manufacturing Applications

Description This paper introduces line confocal technology that was recently developed to characterize 3D features of various surface and material types at sub-micron resolution. ... read more
Author(s)
Juha Saily
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Head-on-Pillow Defect Detection - X-ray Inspection Limitations

Description Both the number and the variants of Ball Grid Array packages (BGAs) are tending to increase on network Printed Board Assemblies (PBAs)with sizes ranging from a few mm die size Wafer Level Packages (WLPs) with low ball count up to large multi-die System-in-Package (SiP) BGAs with 60-70 mm side len ... read more
Author(s)
Lars Bruno,Benny Gustafson
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

D-PAK Voiding: A Study to Determine the Origins of D-PAK Voiding

Description Voiding in bottom termination components (BTCs) like QFNs and LGAs have become quote the hot topic in the SMT industry. Surprisingly,one type of BTC component that is observed to have excessive amounts of voiding is the D-PAK. ... read more
Author(s)
Kim Flanagan,Greg Wade
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Evaluating the Recess Depths of Recess-in-Motherboards using Different Metrologies

Description The demand to produce smaller electronic devices and products to meet the needs of consumer electronic applications has resulted in thinner ball grid array (BGA) packages with finer pitches. ... read more
Author(s)
A. Caputo,T. Swettlen,J. T. Harris,R. Aspandiar,B. Grossman,S. Mokler
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Innovative Electroplating Processes for IC Substrates - Via Fill,Through Hole Fill and Embedded Trench Fill

Description In this era of electronics miniaturization,high yield and low cost integrated circuit (IC) substrates play a crucial role by providing a reliable method of high density interconnection of chip to board. ... read more
Author(s)
Saminda Dharmarathna,Sy Maddux,Chao Benjamin,Ivan Li,William Bowerman,Kesheng Feng,Jim Watkowski
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Filling of Microvias and Through Holes by Electrolytic Copper Plating - Current Status and Future Outlook

Description The electronics industry is further progressing in terms of smaller,faster,smarter and more efficient electronic devices. This continuous evolving environment caused the development on various electrolytic copper processes for different applications over the past several decades. ... read more
Author(s)
Mustafa Özköt,Sven Lamprecht,Akif Özkök,Dolly Akingbohungbe,Moody Dreiza
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Robust Reliability Testing for Drop-on-Demand Jet Printing

Description In this study,the question was how to perform statistically reliable robust- ness tests for the non-contact drop-on-demand printing of functional fluids,such as solder paste and conductive adhesives. ... read more
Author(s)
Gustaf Martensson,Patrik Mirzai
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Dispensing EMI Shielding Materials: An Alternative to Sputtering

Description Shielding electronic systems against electromagnetic interference (EMI) has become a hot topic. ... read more
Author(s)
Garrett Wong,Jinu Choi
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Enhancing Printed Circuit Board Layout Using Thermo-Mechanical Analysis

Description The use of high performance electronic assemblies in harsh environments subject solder interconnects to complex loading conditions that are primarily driven by the behavior of circuit card assembly and mounting constraints. ... read more
Author(s)
Maxim Serebreni,Natalie Hernandez Ph.D.,Nathan Blattau Ph.D.,Gilad Sharon Ph.D.,Craig Hillman Ph.D.
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Comparison of Finite Elements Based Thermal Shock Test Reliability Assessment with a Specimen Based Test Approach

Description When it comes to reliability assessment of an electronic system,consisting of several components,such as an assembled printed circuit board (PCBA),this often turns out to be a challenging task. ... read more
Author(s)
Qi Tao,Thomas Krivec,Manfred Riedler,Markus Frewein
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Innovative Plasmacoatings for High Volume Conformal Coating of Electronics

Description Plasma is considered to be the 4th state of matter. Decomposed molecules interact with all exposed surfaces of the material,even the inner surfaces of open cell structures. ... read more
Author(s)
Eva Rogge,Filip Legein
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Implementing Two-Component Conformal Coatings into Production

Description Conformal coating formulators are developing two-component solutions that improve protection,adhesion,and cure speed. Multi-component coatings are not new to the industry. Some of the oldest conformal coating formulations available are of the two-component variety. ... read more
Author(s)
Jon Urquhart
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Volume Repeatability for Non-Contact Jet Printing of Solder Paste

Description Solder paste is one of the most common materials used in surface mount technology (SMT) processes. Typical methods for applying solder paste to devices are needle dispensing or screen printing,each one has specific benefits and drawbacks. ... read more
Author(s)
Gustaf Mårtensson,Jeff Leal,Nerijus Augustis
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Investigation of the Assembly Process of m03015 and a Brief Look at m0201 Components

Description Components are still shrinking in the SMT world and the next evolution of the passive components are the m03015 (009005) and m0201 (008004). Today it is seen that the 01005 component is still relatively unused in most of today’s printed circuit board assemblies. ... read more
Author(s)
David Geiger,Robert Pennings,Jane Feng
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Advanced Non-Pressure Silver Sinter Process by Infrared

Description In Power Electronics,increasing attention are drawn to silver sinter materials as an attractive interconnect material for its properties and also as a lead replacement solution. ... read more
Author(s)
Wolfgang Schmitt,Daniel Schnee
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Zero-Fault Production in Soldering Processes: Quality Management Based on Quality Assurance

Description A production process free from defects,with every production step being reproducible and traceable,is the target of quality assurance in electronics production worldwide. In many cases manual rework processes are not allowed,due to quality related reasons and cost issues. ... read more
Author(s)
Heike Schlessmann
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Soldering and Plating for Tin-Lead and Lead-Free Connection Reliability

Description Aerospace Defense High Performance (ADHP) electronics products primarily use tin-lead solders,but electrical and electronic component finishes (i.e.,platings) increasingly are designed for lead-free solders. ... read more
Author(s)
Mike Wolverton
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Acoustic Detection of Pad Craters in Mechanical Shock and Transient Bend Tests

Description Printed circuit assemblies have become more susceptible to a failure mode known as “pad cratering” due to the implementation of several material restrictions. Pad cratering is defined as mechanically-induced fracture between the copper pad/trace and printed circuit board (PCB)laminate. ... read more
Author(s)
Julie Silk,W. Carter Ralph,Gregory Morscher,Elizabeth Benedetto,Douglas Olney
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Analyzing a Printed Circuit Board Weave Exposure Condition and its Effects on Printed Wiring Assembly Functional Performance

Description Printed Circuit Board (PCB) weave texture and weave exposure are conditions that may appear similar if appropriate inspection techniques are not applied in a manner that can differentiate between the two. ... read more
Author(s)
Wade Goldman,Andrew Dineen,Hailey Jordan,Curtis Leonard,Timothy Redling,Edward Arthur
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Development of a High Temperature Protective Coating to Enable Organic Printed Circuit Boards to Operate at Higher Temperatures

Description Reliable operation of electronics at higher temperatures requires a combination of performance improvements in components,interconnects and substrates. Ceramic based substrate options can be costly,heavy and prone to mechanical damage. ... read more
Author(s)
Martin Wickham,Vimal Gopee,Adam Lewis,Christine Thorogood
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Water Resistant,Sprayable and Dippable Nano-Coatings for Printed Circuit Assemblies

Description The electronics industry could benefit greatly from low cost,easy to apply coatings that can be applied to almost any PCBA surface in order to provide effective and practical water (damage) resistance. ... read more
Author(s)
Howard "Rusty" Osgood,David Geiger,Christopher Vu,Kelvin Wong,Christian Biederman,Wesley Tran,Tuyen Nguyen,Ellen Ray
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Minimizing Signal Degradation in Flexible PCB Microstrip and Stripline Transmission Lines That Use Cross-Hatched Return Planes

Description In restricted-space applications,flexible PCBs must be able to fold with especially small bend radii. This in turn requires the return planes associated with microstrip and stripline transmission lines be cross-hatched. ... read more
Author(s)
Franz Gisin
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Semi-Additive Process for Variant Polyimide Substrates in Ultra-Fine Flexible Circuitry

Description Ultra-fine flexible circuitry has been more and more applied in electronic devices due to their fast innovation and the increasing demand on miniaturization,light weight and flexibility in some cases. ... read more
Author(s)
Fei Peng,Ernest Long,Jim Watkowski,William Bowerman
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Library Management for an Ever-Evolving Diverse EDA Tool Industry

Description Any company that designs PCBAs that has gone through the throws of an acquisition,CAD tool change or even an EMS company with a varied customer base has to deal with more than one EDA tool and library. Many questions arise. ... read more
Author(s)
Michelle Gleason
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Improved Interoperability Between MCAD and ECAD Design Tools

Description During the design of printed wiring boards,our engineers exchange files between the MCAD and ECAD tools in order to synchronize boards and to validate the fulfillment of design requirements. ... read more
Author(s)
Robb McCord,Kelli Hosier,Doug Renwick,Mike Rindos
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

PCBA Redesigns Done in the Right Way

Description Electronic component end-of-life (EOL) and declining prices are more problematic to industrial than consumer electronic products. Industrial electronic products typically have long product lifecycles. 10 years,15 years and up to 20 years are common. ... read more
Author(s)
San Wong,Murad Kurwa
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Electric Field Control - EOS Mystery Solved

Description A new discovery of missing fundamental controls in electronic manufacturing is the cause for most Electric Overstress failures generated by PCB and cable discharge events. ... read more
Author(s)
Michael Stevens
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

X-ray Inspection of Radiation Sensitive Devices Recommended Best Practices for Preprogramed Managed NAND

Description Automated X-ray inspection post solder reflow is used to automatically analyze and detect structural defects including solder voids,opens,shorts,insufficient solder and other defects. These defects typically account for 80%to 90% of the total defects on an assembled circuit board. ... read more
Author(s)
Dave Rohona,Vineeth Bastin
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Monitoring the Cleaning Process using Industry 4.0 Methodology

Description Assemblers of printed circuit boards seek to provide their customers with high-quality products at the lowest possible cost. The total cost of production must take into account the complete product lifecycle including warranty,recalls and repairs. ... read more
Author(s)
Mike Bixenman,Ram Wissel,Bobby Glidwell,Mark McMeen
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Jet Printed Solder Paste and Cleaning Challenges

Description In case of broadband technology,component packages and other devices assembled on the PCBs are ever-shrinking,yet demands for quality,precision and reliability remain the same. Thus,how can manufacturers ensure they are sufficiently clean to meet the stringent quality and reliability demands? ... read more
Author(s)
Ravi Parthasarathy,Kalyan Nukala,Umut Tosun
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

A Novel Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold (ENIG) Surface Finish for Better Reliability of Electronic Assemblies

Description Conventional Electroless Nickel/Immersion Gold (ENIG) currently available in the market is prone to black-pad defects (hyper-corrosion related failures) associated with de-wetting of solder. ENIG also suffers from brittle solder joint failures. ... read more
Author(s)
Kunal Shah Ph.D.
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Solder Joints Failure Under Low Strain-rate Cyclic Loading

Description Solder joint reliability has been a key issue for electronic assemblies and microelectronic packaging for many years. ... read more
Author(s)
Jie Lian Ph.D.,Dennis Willie,Jada Chan,Francoise Sarrazin Ph.D.,Kelvin Wong,Christopher Vu,Wesley Tran,Tuyen Nguyen,Tu Tran,Anwar Mohammed Ph.D.,Michael Doiran
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Study and Recommendation for Increasing PCB Surface Finish Shelf Life

Description Storage time allowed between bare printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly is quite limited. Based on an interpretation of IPC standards,shelf-life of the surface finish is the limiting factor. A lot of boards are scrapped worldwide because they have exceeded their shelf-life. ... read more
Author(s)
Florent Karpus,Francois Lechleiter,Sandrine Thomann,Bernard Ledain,Stephane Queguiner,Eric Allain,Bruno Leythienne
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Equivalent Capacitance Approach to Obtain Effective Roughness Dielectric Parameters for Copper Foils

Description Effective Roughness Dielectric (ERD) is a homogeneous lossy dielectric layer of certain thickness with effective (averaged) dielectric parameters. ... read more
Author(s)
Marina Y. Koledintseva
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Hybrid S-Parameters Behavior of Weak and Strong Edge-Coupled Differential Lines on PCBs

Description Imbalanced weakly and strongly edge-coupled differential pairs on printed circuit boards (PCBs),both microstrip (MS) and stripline (SL),are studied under different conditions using mixed-mode S-parameters. ... read more
Author(s)
Marina Y. Koledintseva,Joe Nuebel,Sergiu Radu,Karl Sauter,Tracey Vincent
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Practical Considerations for PCB Impedance Measurements

Description It is common for PCBs used for high frequency RF or high speed digital applications,to be tested for an impedance value prior to shipping the board. The controlled impedance board is typically specified to a nominal impedance value with a given tolerance. ... read more
Author(s)
John Coonrod
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Sn3.2Ag0.7Cu5.5Sb Solder Alloy with High Reliability Performance up to 175 C

Description A novel lead-free solder alloy 90.6Sn3.2Ag0.7Cu5.5Sb (SACSb),was developed targeted for high reliability with a wide service temperature capability. ... read more
Author(s)
Jie Geng,Hongwen Zhang,Francis Mutuku,Ning-Cheng Lee
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Surviving 3K Thermal Cycles with Variable Void Levels

Description Electronics manufacturers are searching for new lead-free solders that can improve upon SAC305 voiding performance and that exceed the current thermal cycle performance of this solder in harsh environments,all the while being processed at or near current typical SAC305 peak temperatures. ... read more
Author(s)
Rafael Padilla,Derek Daily,Tokuro Yamaki,Tomoyasu Yoshikawa,Masato Shimamura,Hayato Hiwatashi,Hiroaki Iseki,Tomohiro Yamagame
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Round Robin Evaluation of iNEMI Creep Corrosion Qualification Test

Description Creep corrosion on printed circuit boards (PCBs) is the corrosion of copper metallization and the creeping of the copper corrosion products across the PCB surfaces to the extent that they may electrically short circuit neighboring features on the PCBs. ... read more
Author(s)
Prabjit Singh,Larry Palmer,Haley Fu,Dem Lee,Jeffrey Lee,Karlos Guo,Jane Li,Simon Lee,Geoffrey Tong,Chen Xu
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

RoHS: 10 Years Later - IT Equipment Corrosion Issues Remain

Description The European Union RoHS directive took effect in 2006,and of the 6 restricted materials,the elimination of lead from electronic devices took the most development effort and had the worst degrading effect on hardware reliability. ... read more
Author(s)
Christopher Muller
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Stencil Nano-Coatings - Do They Improve Repeatability and Uniformity in the Print Process

Description Over the past few years,studies have shown that Nano-coatings can improve solder paste release and reduce underside cleaning in the print process. Many of these studies have focused on print volume and the improvement of transfer efficiency in small component printing. ... read more
Author(s)
Greg Smith
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Investigating the Influence of Corner Radius within Rectangular Aperture Designs

Description The mobile and consumer market is the driving force of the electronics assembly sector,this sector historically has been associated with early adopters of leading edge surface mount technology (SMT). ... read more
Author(s)
Clive Ashmore
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Examination of Glass/Epoxy Interfaces in Printed Circuit Boards

Description Most manufacturers of electronics grade glass fiber reinforcement used in today’s laminates apply treatments to enhance the bonding strength between the inorganic e-glass and the epoxy matrix which surrounds it in the laminate structure. ... read more
Author(s)
Carlos Morillo,Bhanu Sood,Michael Pecht
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Thermo-mechanical Characterization of Next Generation Substrate Like Printed Circuit Board (SLP) Materials

Description Internet of Things (IoT) adoption pushes the boundaries of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) miniaturization and speed employing more hybrid stack-ups. ... read more
Author(s)
Devanshu Kant,Shane Bravard,Arnold Andres
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Derivation of Equation on Thermal Life Prediction of Plated Through Hole for Printed Wiring Board

Description Printed wiring boards(PWBs) have recently been experiencing higher thermal stress in car electronics and high current equipment,etc. ... read more
Author(s)
Yoshiyuki Hiroshima,Shunichi Kikuchi,Akiko Matsuki,Yoshiharu Kariya,Kazuki Watanabe,Hiroshi Shimizu,Jack Tan
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Embedded Inductors with Laser Machined Gap

Description This work presents the fabrication of embedded inductors and the experimental laser machining of gaps in the underlying ferrite structure. Design calculations are presented for a test coupon of power inductors. ... read more
Author(s)
Jim Quilici
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

SLP+

Description As the IoT market demands higher data rates and processing,the PCB technology is driving for smaller form factors,higher signal densities,and advanced material solutions. Miniaturization has been a common trend. ... read more
Author(s)
M. Yu,J. Vrtis,P. Huang,M. Glickman,H. Galyon,T. Robinson,M. Bergman,L. Talarico,H. Berkel,A. Andres,A. Cai,W. Li,M. Chavez,B. Nagle,D. Kant,S. Bravard
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

A Comparison of Registration Errors Amongst Suppliers of Printed Circuit boards

Description Misregistration of holes is the maximum amount of variation between the centerlines of all terminal pads within one plated through hole in a printed circuit board. ... read more
Author(s)
Bhanu Sood,Lionel-Nobel W. Sindjui
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

Correlations of Salt Composition and Surface Insulation Resistance Results

Description Sixteen simple inorganic salts were separately dissolved in water to a specific concentration,applied to separate Surface Insulation Resistance (SIR) coupons,dried and then the coupons were subjected to common SIR testing. ... read more
Author(s)
Nathan Pajunen,Alexandre Romanov,Deepchand Ramjattan,Bev Christian
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018

The Effect of a Nitrogen Reflow Environment on the Electrical Reliability of Rosin Based No-Clean Solder Paste Flux Residues

Description Rosin-based no-clean solder pastes are the most widely used solder pastes in the world and dominate consumer electronics assembly. The most common rosin-based no-clean solder paste reflow environment is air,which has some obvious advantages such as no-cost and tombstoning mitigation. ... read more
Author(s)
Eric Bastow
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2018