Analyzing a Printed Circuit Board with Oxide Residue

Description A number of similar Printed Wiring Assemblies (PWAs) had been subjected to final electrical tests on automated test equipment when a common test failure was recognized. ... read more
Author(s)
Wade Goldman , Andrew Dineen, Hailey Jordan, Curtis Leonard, Edward Arthur
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Outgassing Behaviour of SMT Flux Residue During Reflow Soldering

Description SMT-flux residues are feared to be a potential risk factor for quality issues in electronic assembly and interconnect technology. ... read more
Author(s)
Theresia Richter, Shiyu Huang, Thomas Blank, Pierre Eckold, Lothar Henneken
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

How to Manage Material Outgassing in Reflow Oven

Description In a lead-free reflow process, temperatures are higher, and materials use outgasses more than in a leaded reflow process. The trends toward higher density populated boards and more pin-in-paste technology also increase solder paste use. ... read more
Author(s)
Gerjan Diepstraten
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Comparing Soldering Results of ENIG and EPIG Post Steam Exposure

Description ENIG, electroless nickel immersion gold is now a well-regarded finish used to enhance and preserve the solder-ability of copper circuits. ... read more
Author(s)
J. Bengston and R. DePoto
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Designing a High Performance Electroless Nickel and Immersion Gold to Maximize Highest Reliability

Description The latest highest reliability requirements demand a high performance electroless nickel and immersion gold (HP ENIG). The new IPC specification 4552A has refocused the industry with reference to nickel corrosion. ... read more
Author(s)
Robert Spreemann, Rick Nichols, Sandra Nelle
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Multilayered Flexible Hybrid Screen Printed Circuits on Disposable Medical Grade Substrates

Description This paper details the realization of a multi-layered, printed, conformable hybrid circuit. The circuit was created using silver(Ag) flake ink as a conductive layer and UV acrylic-based ink as a dielectric layer. ... read more
Author(s)
N. Richards, S. Stevens, N. Ghalib, M. Sussman, H. Ramirez, R. Hugeneck, G. Wable, J. Richstein, S.G.R. Avuthu
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Printed Electronics for Medical Devices

Description As is the case with many other markets where faster, highly capable technologies have resulted in more intelligent processes and products, the medical device sector is also undergoing a “smart” transformation. ... read more
Author(s)
Jeff Grover
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Fabric Weaving and Circuit Orientations Impact for Skew / Signal Integrity

Description This Presentation discusses Improvements for signal integrity.  Signal integrity is based on the copper surface roughness, the oxides on the copper, and the Dielectric constant of the Dielectric material.  The Dielectric material dielectric constant is effected by the glass weave and the weave pa ... read more
Author(s)
Eric Liao
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Innovations for future RF designs

Description This Slide show presents RF Cap Layers to normal FR4 Dielectric materials.  This material can be used in multiple configurations including Single sided, Double sided, and Hybrid.   This material contains different and enhanced Dielectric Frequencies for Radio Frequency PCBs.   ... read more
Author(s)
Matthew Lake
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Higher Defluxing Temperature and Low Standoff Component Cleaning-A Connection?

Description OEMs and CMs designing and building electronic assemblies for high reliability applications are typically faced with a decision to clean or not to clean the assembly. ... read more
Author(s)
Jigar Patel and Umut Tosun
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Methodology for Developing Cleaning Process Parameters

Description Electronic assembly processes range from simple to complex and involve a wide range of materials to produce. Each step in the process and each assembly material used will have some impact on the assembly, most affecting the cleaning process window. ... read more
Author(s)
Mike Bixenman, Mark McMeen, Vladimir Sitko, Axel Vargas
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

IPC-J-STD-001 Rev G, Amendment 1, Section 8 Cleanliness SectionSIR Test Method for Developing Objective Evidence for the Production Assembly

Description Since the 1970s, ROSE testing was used to determine “clean enough.” In 2015, the J-STD-001 committee assigned a team to develop the next generation of “cleanliness” requirements. Section 8 defines the key concepts that drove the need for developing new cleanliness requirements. ... read more
Author(s)
Mark McMeen, Doug Pauls, Mike Bixenman
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Oxidation Resistant Nano-Cu Sintering Paste for Die Attach Applications

Description A nano-Cu pressureless sinterable paste was developed for joint formation applications. The material was further engineered in both chemistry and process for enhanced oxidation resistance. ... read more
Author(s)
Min Yao, and Ning-Cheng Lee
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Fluxes Suppressing Non-Wet-Open at BGA Assembly

Description With the advancement in miniaturization, the die is getting thinner and the solder balls are getting smaller for BGAs. ... read more
Author(s)
Fengying Zhou, Fen Chen, and Ning-Cheng Lee
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Size Matters - The Effects of Solder Powder Size on Solder Paste Performance

Description Solder powder size is a popular topic in the electronics industry due to the continuing trend of miniaturization of electronics. ... read more
Author(s)
Tony Lentz
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2014

Interconnect Reliability Correlation with System Design and Transportation Stress

Description Interconnect reliability especially in BGA solder joints and compliant pins are subjected to design parameters which are very critical to ensure product performance at pre-defined shipping condition and user environment. ... read more
Author(s)
Dr. Paul Wang, Vincent Weng, and Dr. Kim S ang C him
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Multiphysics Design for Thermal Management to Increase Radar Capabilities

Description Increased demand for radar capabilities has required increasingly more efficient thermal management techniques. Simple cold plates using tubes or channels are frequently used to cool high power components but restrictions on size, weight, and power have restricted their effectiveness. ... read more
Author(s)
Paul W Bratt
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Realization of a New Concept for Power Chip Embedding

Description Embedded components technology has launched its implementation in volume products demanding high levels of miniaturization. Small modules with embedded dies and passive components on the top side are mounted in hand held devices. ... read more
Author(s)
H. Stahr, M. Morianz, I. Salkovic
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Stretchable Hybrid Electronics (S.H.E.) Constructions Based on a Novel Thermosetting Polymer System

Description This presentation covers Stretchable hybrid electronics.  Stretchable electronics have the most industry uses in wearable technology and for mobile sensing and response devices.  Thermosetting resins are used in the layers of the flexible electronics.  A new thermosetting resin is tested for stre ... read more
Author(s)
Andy Behr
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Next-Generation Additive Electronics -Precise Multi-Material Deposition for Circuits, Electro-Mechanical Parts and Antennas

Description This presentation covers additive manufacturing and the direct deposit of multiple metals.  This additive capability is best utilized for the production of complicated circuits such as Radar and antennas.  There are a lot of potential uses for additive manufacturing including prototyping and low ... read more
Author(s)
Simon Fried
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Additive Manufacturing of a Heat Exchanger for a Radar System

Description The defense industry has realized the importance of Additive Manufacturing (AM) and how this technology can be utilized where parts can be fabricated inexpensively with reduction in lead times. ... read more
Author(s)
Patrick Loney, Roddy Rodriguez, Phil Lovell, Bruce Isler, Brian Miller
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

The Effects of Filler Morphology on The Fracture Toughness of Thermally Conductive Adhesives

Description Thermally conductive adhesives are widely implemented in a variety of electronic assemblies. These adhesives combine the function of mechanical fasteners and thermal interface materials into one product. ... read more
Author(s)
John Timmerman
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Silicone Thermally Conductive Grease: Improving Thermal Management of Electronic Assemblies

Description The trend of incorporating more and more electronic devices into our daily life is bringing challenges for the industry. The need for smaller and more powerful devices is also facing one problem: heat dissipation. ... read more
Author(s)
Carlos Montemayor
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

High and Matched Refractive Index Liquid Adhesives for Optical Device Assembly

Description There is an increase in the number of optical sensors and cameras being integrated into electronics devices. These go beyond cell phone cameras into automotive sensors, wearables, and other smart devices. ... read more
Author(s)
Taro Kenmochi
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Optimising Solder Paste Volume for Low Temperature Reflow of BGA Packages

Description The need to minimise thermal damage to components and laminates, to reduce warpage-induced defects to BGA packages, and to save energy, is driving the electronics industry towards lower process temperatures. ... read more
Author(s)
Keith Sweatman
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Low Temperature SMT Solder Evaluation

Description The electronics industry could benefit greatly from using a reliable, manufacturable, reduced temperature, SMT solder material (alloy-composition) which is cost competitive with traditional Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305)solder. The many possible advantages and some disadvantages / challenges are discussed. ... read more
Author(s)
Howard “Rusty”Osgood, David Geiger, Robert Pennings, Christian Biederman, Jie Jiang, Jon Bernal
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Developments in Electroless Copper Processes to Improve Performance in am SAPMobile Applications

Description With the adoption of Wafer Level Packages (WLP) in the latest generation mobile handsets, the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) industry has also seen the initial steps of High Density Interconnect (HDI)products migrating away from the current subtractive processes towards a more technically adept tech ... read more
Author(s)
Stefanie Bremmert, Laurence Gregoriades, Kay Wurdinger, Thomas Vágó, Tobias Bernhard, Frank Bruning, Roger Massey
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Semi-Additive Process (SAP) Utilizing Very Uniform Ultrathin Copper by A Novel Catalyst

Description The demand for miniaturization and higher density electronic products has continued steadily for years and this trend is expected to continue,  according to various semiconductor technology and applications roadmaps. ... read more
Author(s)
Steve Iketani, Mike Vinson
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Approaches to Overcome Nodules and Scratches on Wire Bondable Plating on PCBs

Description Initially adopted internal specifications for acceptance of printed circuit boards (PCBs) used for wire bonding was that there were no nodules or scratches allowed on the wire bond pads when inspected under 20X magnification. ... read more
Author(s)
Young K. Song and Vanja Bukva
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Development and Classification of Conductive Circuitry for E-textiles

Description This paper examines the development and classification of flexible and stretchable conductive pathways to carry power and data and details the technical challenges as well as the methodologies deployed to develop a robust and commercial solution. ... read more
Author(s)
Kalana Marasinghe, Praneeth Weerasekara, Raweendra Kumara, Ishan Chathuranga
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Bladder Inflation Method for Mechanical Testing of Stretchable Electronics and Wearable Devices

Description The advent of electronic materials with the potential to undergo extreme deformation while maintaining conductivity has led to the development of advanced stretchable electronic systems. These systems have applications in vital industries ranging from consumer products to medicine and defense. ... read more
Author(s)
Benjamin G. Stewart, Isaac Bower, and Suresh K. Sitaraman
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Additive Manufacturing for Next Generation Microwave Electronics and Antennas

Description The paper will discuss the integration of 3D printing and inkjet printing fabrication technologies for microwave and millimeter-wave applications. ... read more
Author(s)
Xuanke He, Bijan K. Tehrani, Ryan A. Bahr, Manos Tentzeris
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Insertion Loss Performance Differences Due to Plated Finish and Different Circuit Structures

Description Many different final plated finishes are used in the PCB industry, each with its own influence on insertion loss. The impact of an applied finish on insertion loss is generally dependent upon frequency, circuit thickness, and design configuration. ... read more
Author(s)
John Coonrod
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

A Novel Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold (ENIG) Surface Finish for Robust Solder Joints and Better Reliability of Electronic Assemblies

Description Conventional Electroless Nickel/Immersion Gold (ENIG) currently available in the market is prone to brittle solder joints failures. ... read more
Author(s)
Samuel Rhodes, Ariel McFalls, Kunal Shah, PhD
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Surface Treatment Enabling Low Temperature Soldering to Aluminum

Description The majority of flexible circuits are made by patterning copper metal that is laminated to a flexible substrate, which is usually polyimide film of varying thickness. An increasingly popular method to meet the need for lower cost circuitry is the use of aluminum on Polyester (Al-PET) substrates. ... read more
Author(s)
Divyakant Kadiwala
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Approaching FCT with Low-Cost Modular and Fully Integrated Test Fixtures

Description Constant increases in feature density of printed circuit board assemblies (PCBA) has highlighted the importance of functional circuit test (FCT) systems in a manufacturing process. ... read more
Author(s)
Matthias Zapatka, Lance Davies, Justin Gregg, Brian Crisp
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

The Next RF Probing Challenge: IoT and 5G

Description IoT and 5G applications have theirchallenges when it comes to functional testing –especially for the probing part inside a functional test fixture(hereinafter referred to as “FCT” fixture).In this paperwe would like to demonstrate how to successfully use passive coaxial probes for power level and ... read more
Author(s)
Matthias Zapatka, Stephan Grensemann, Nebiat Awano
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Creating Reusable Manufacturing Tests for High-Speed I/O with Synthetic Instruments

Description There is a compelling need for functional testing of high-speed input/output signals on circuit boards ranging from 1 gigabit per second(Gbps) to several hundred Gbps. ... read more
Author(s)
Louis Y. Ungar, Neil G. Jacobson, T.M. Mak,
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Copper Filled Microvias - The New Hidden Threat Links of Faith Are Not Created Equally

Description Microvias connect adjacent copper layers to complete electrical paths. Copper-filled microvias can be stacked to form connections beyond adjacent copper layers. Staggered microvias stitch adjacent copper layers with paths that meander on the layers between the microvias. ... read more
Author(s)
Jerry Magera and J.R. Strickland
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Impact of Assembly Cycles on Copper Wrap Plating

Description The PWB industry needs to complete reliability testing in order to define the minimum copper wrap plating thickness requirement for confirming the reliability of PTH structures.  Predicting reliability must ensure that the failure mechanism is demonstrated as a wear-out failure mode because a pla ... read more
Author(s)
Hardeep Heer, Ryan Wong, Bryan Clark Bill Birch, Jason Furlong
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Smart Molded Structures Bring Surfaces to Life

Description This paper introduces structural electronics technology enabling smart molded structures. ... read more
Author(s)
Outi Rusanen, Janne Asikkala, Mikko Heikkinen, Paavo Niskala and Tomi Simula
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Development of Flexible Hybrid Electronics

Description Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE) refer to a category of flexible electronics that are made through a combination of traditional assembly process of electronic components with the high-precision ink printing technologies.  By integrating silicon components with printed inks and flexible substrate ... read more
Author(s)
Weifeng Liu, PhD, Alex Chan, William Uy, Dennis Willie, Dongkai Shangguan, PhD
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Additive Manufacturing-Enabled Wireless Flexible Hybrid Electronics for Brain-Machine Interfaces

Description Inherent variation among human brains causes difficulty in the design of electroencephalography (EEG)-enabled universal brain-machine interfaces (BMI). Existing EEG systems suffer from inconsistent signal quality, while requiring many rigid wires and metal electrodes on a hair cap. ... read more
Author(s)
Musa Mahmood, Saswat Mishra and Woon-Hong Yeo
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Low Temperature Soldering: Thermal Cycling Reliability Performance

Description The technical and economic benefits derived from lowering the reflow temperatures have motivated the evaluation of new Sn-Bi low temperature alloys for soldering. ... read more
Author(s)
Morgana Ribas, Ph.D., Prathap Augustine, Pritha Choudhury, Ph.D., Raghu Raj Rangaraju, Anil Kumar, Siuli Sarkar
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

New-Generation, Low-TemperatureLead-Free Solder for SMT Assembly

Description Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305)is the major solder alloy after RoHS was adopted by the European Union. Since its melting temperature is relatively higher than eutectic SnPb alloy, the peak reflow temperature increases. ... read more
Author(s)
Watson Tseng, Boon-Ho Lee, Chun-Yu Chang, Chih-Hsiang Li, Kuo-Shu Lin,Shih-Lo Yueh, Seiji Kobayashi
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

PCB Manufacturing for Electronics Megatrends

Description The world as we know it is changing. Electronic megatrends are impacting the world and rapidly changing the way we experience day-to-day life. ... read more
Author(s)
Micha Perlman
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2019

Assembly Challenges of Die and Die-Size BGAs

Description This paper presents assembly challenges of mixed area array technologies covering Very Thin ChipArray® Ball Grid Array (CVBGA) and its Land Grid Array version (CV-LGA), embedded Wafer Level Land Grid Array (eWLP-LGA), and Copper-Pillar Flip-Chip (CP-FC) die—all with daisy-chain patterns to enable ... read more
Author(s)
Reza Ghaffarian, Michael Meilunas
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2022

Board Level Reliability Testing of RF Packages

Description Board level reliability testing is becoming a requirement amongst users for acceptance of components and packages. Standard component level JEDEC tests are not sufficient to qualify a supplier, this must be accompanied with board level reliability data to ensure assembly and field reliability. ... read more
Author(s)
Mumtaz Y. Bora
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2022

High Temperature Thermal Cycling Reliability Testing of a High Reliability Lead-free Solder Alloy

Description In recent years there has been an increased demand for electronic products with high reliability solder alloys having improved performance in thermal cycle resistance for harsh working environments. Traditional thermal cycling tests have used 40°C to +125°C for automotive type applications. ... read more
Author(s)
Jasbir Bath, Kimiaki Mori, Takeshi Yahagi, Shantanu Joshi, Roberto Segura
Event
IPC APEX EXPO 2022